Purpose: To assess motor skills
Age: 0-5 years
Time: 40-60 minutes
The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales–Second Edition (PDMS-2) is an early childhood motor development program that provides both an in-depth assessment and training or remediation of gross and fine motor skills.
The assessment is composed of six subtests that measure interrelated motor abilities that develop early in life:
- Reflexes: 8-item subtest measures a child's ability to automatically react to environmental events. This subtest is only given to children birth through 11 months.
- Stationary: 30-item subtest measures a child's ability to sustain control of his or her body within its centre of gravity and retain equilibrium.
- Locomotion: 89-item subtest measures a child's ability to move from one place to another. The actions measured include crawling, walking, running, hopping, and jumping forward.
- Object Manipulation: 24-item subtest measures a child's ability to manipulate balls. Examples of the actions measured include catching, throwing, and kicking. Because these skills are not apparent until a child has reached the age of 11 months, this subtest is only given to children ages 12 months and older.
- Grasping: 26-item subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her hands. It begins with the ability to hold an object with one hand and progresses up to actions involving the controlled use of the fingers of both hands.
- Visual-Motor Integration: 72-item subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her visual perceptual skills to perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks such as reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and copying designs.
- Fine Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the small muscle systems: Grasping (all ages), Visual-Motor Integration (all ages).
- Gross Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the large muscle systems
- Total Motor Quotient: This composite is formed by a combination of the results of the gross and fine motor subtests. Because of this, it is the best estimate of overall motor abilities.
Included in the PDSM-2 is instruction/treatment program - the Peabody Motor Activities Program (P-MAP). It contains units organised developmentally by skill area. After a child's motor skills have been assessed and the examiner has completed all sections of the Profile/ Summary Form, the examiner selects units from the P-MAP to use to facilitate the child's development in specific skill areas.
Second Edition Updates
- The Profile/Summary Forms enable the examiner to record the child's PDMS-2 scores and graphically display the child's performance in two formats.
- The Examiner Record Booklets contain all of the items to be given to the child. Booklets contain abbreviated instructions for administering items once the examiner is thoroughly familiar with the more detailed instructions found in the Illustrated Guide for administering and scoring the PDMS-2 Items. The booklets contain clearly marked entry points to be used to locate the beginning item for each subtest.
- Descriptions of every item in the PDMS-2 - Items are referenced by number within each subtest and each item description includes: (a) the age at which 50% of the children in the normative sample have mastered the item, (b) the position the child should be in when the item is administered, (c) the stimulus (if needed) for presenting the item, (d) the procedure used to test the item, (e) the criterion used to score the item, and (f) the illustration of a child performing the item.
- The new Peabody Motor Development Chart provides the examiner with a convenient reference for the motor skills measured by the PDMS-2 and the ages at which 50% of the normative sample performed the skill. Each of the subtests is represented along with numerous illustrations of children demonstrating the behaviours described in the text.
The PDMS-2 can now be scored online, via the new PC, Mac, and iPad compatible PDMS-2 Online Scoring and Reporting System.
The Online Scoring and Reporting System:
- Calculates basals and ceilings on item-level data
- Converts PDMS-2 item scores or subtest raw scores into standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents
- Generates composite quotients
- Compares PDMS-2 subtest and composite performance to identify significant intra-individual differences
- Provides a printed report of the student's identifying information and PDMS-2 performance, including short-term and long-term treatment goals and objectives
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- Postgraduate studies in Psychology or Medicine
Examples of specialists: Psychiatrists, Paediatricians, Psychologists