Purpose: Identify individuals who distort their responses
Age: 16+ years
Time: 5–7 minutes
Format: Hard-copy; Online
The Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS) is a 40-item instrument that is able to identify individuals who distort their responses, designed to be administered concurrently with other instruments.
Items are phrased in contemporary, gender-neutral language.
The PDS can be administered and scored by hand, or online.